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RIL

RIL

  • Apa itu RIL ?

    Defining RIL

    Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL) consists of technologies and practices that are designed to minimize environmental impacts associated with industrial timber harvesting operations. Here the focus is on operations in tropical forests, although the same principles apply to other types of forests as well.

    TFF has now released a generic Standard for RIL which can be used to develop country-specific criteria and indicators.

    In the S.E. Asia context, a RIL operation should normally include the following points :

    1. A Criteria & Indicators interpretation guide is now available for Indonesia.
    2. Pre-harvest inventory and mapping of individual crop trees.
    3. Preparation of accurate, operational scale contour maps.
    4. Pre-harvest planning of roads, skid trails, and landings to provide access to the harvest area and to the individual trees scheduled for harvest while minimizing soil disturbance and protecting streams and waterways with properly engineered crossings.
    5. The development of written environmental and operational standards to guide planning and operational activities and the integration of these standards into the company structure.
    6. The use of controlled felling and bucking techniques including directional felling
    7. The development of written felling and bucking standards to minimize logging waste and to maximize volume and value recovery.
    8. Construction of roads and landings so that they adhere to engineering and environmental design guidelines while minimizing soil disturbance and damage to residual vegetation.
    9. Marking skid trail locations on the ground so the skidder operators can find them easily.
    10. Opening skid trails prior to felling. Minimize soil disturbance during the construction and utilization of skid trails through the application of simple guidelines and adequate supervision
    11. Winching logs to planned skid trails and ensuring that skidding machines remain on the planned skid trails at all times.
    12. On sloping topography, deactivation of skid trails after the operation has been completed (e.g., by cross-ditching) to minimize erosion.
    13. Conducting post-harvest assessments to provide feedback to the timber concession holder and the logging crews, and to evaluate the degree to which RIL guidelines were applied successfully.

     

    For these practices to be applied in a cost-effective and environmentally sound manner, the following prerequisites are essential :

    1. The concession holder and logging operator must be able to provide legal documentation showing that they are legally entitled to harvest the timber within the operational area and that the operation is being conducted in adherence to all applicable laws and regulations.
    2. A detailed set of operational and environmental standards must exist to which the logging operation will conform, and the managerial, planning, and logging crews must all be thoroughly familiar with these standards.
    3. The planning and logging crews must be trained in their respective functions, and they must understand not only what is to be done and how to do it, but also why it is important.
    4. Crews must be provided with proper safety equipment and must be trained in its use and maintenance.
    5. Knowledgeable, well-trained supervisors must be present in the field to oversee the work, to maintain prescribed standards for the operation, and to ensure that the schedule of activities is followed.
    6. Where lodging in a field camp is required, the camp must adhere to sanitary and dietary standards applicable to the jurisdiction in which it is located.
    7. Logging equipment must be suited to the operating conditions and must be maintained in good working condition.
    8. Planning and operational activities must be thoroughly integrated in order to ensure that the plans are properly implemented. This may require adjustments to the company's structural and procedural arrangements.
    9. A management and control system must be in place that will provide timely operating information to the concession holder, the logging manager, and external auditors. Such a system includes detailed job descriptions, staffing information, equipment inventories, standard operating procedures, and similar information.
  • Conducting research into the cost and benefits of RIL is inherently complicated. Each study site has its own peculiarities which are extremely difficult to duplicate.

     

    Forest conditions vary from flat to very broken terrain and tree sizes show a similar variability between tropical forest regions of the world. It has become clear that the more broken the terrain and/or the larger the trees, the less difference there will be between conventional logging and RIL logging.

     

    In addition the logging activities themselves are influenced by a wide range of variables such as:

    • Skidding distance
    • Piece size and weight
    • Profile of the skid trail
    • Terrain conditions
    • Soil conditions
    • Weather
    • Machine type and condition
    • Operator experience
    • RIL standards being applied

     

    One of the biggest problems in trying to quantify the costs and benefits of RIL, is the different standards and study methodologies which researchers have applied to this topic. The result of all this variability, is a corresponding lack of uniformity of results in RIL productivity and cost studies.

     

    To-date, one of the most rigorous and definitive studies on RIL costs and benefits, has been the work done through TFF in Brazil. A synopsis of the research results, is available in "Financial Costs and Benefits of Reduced Impact Logging in the Eastern Amazon".

     

    TFF-Indonesia has participated with a number of concession in conducting in-house operational trials intended to give a quick evaluation of the productivity benefits of adopting RIL. Results of such studies will be published in the "RIL & Certification" newsletter from time to time. For the results of a recent study refer to the article "Investigating the Benefits of an RIL System" in the April 2004 issue of the "RIL & Certification Newsletter".

     

  • Conducting research into the cost and benefits of RIL is inherently complicated. Each study site has its own peculiarities which are extremely difficult to duplicate.

     

    Forest conditions vary from flat to very broken terrain and tree sizes show a similar variability between tropical forest regions of the world. It has become clear that the more broken the terrain and/or the larger the trees, the less difference there will be between conventional logging and RIL logging.

     

    In addition the logging activities themselves are influenced by a wide range of variables such as:

    • Skidding distance
    • Piece size and weight
    • Profile of the skid trail
    • Terrain conditions
    • Soil conditions
    • Weather
    • Machine type and condition
    • Operator experience
    • RIL standards being applied

     

    One of the biggest problems in trying to quantify the costs and benefits of RIL, is the different standards and study methodologies which researchers have applied to this topic. The result of all this variability, is a corresponding lack of uniformity of results in RIL productivity and cost studies.

     

    To-date, one of the most rigorous and definitive studies on RIL costs and benefits, has been the work done through TFF in Brazil. A synopsis of the research results, is available in "Financial Costs and Benefits of Reduced Impact Logging in the Eastern Amazon".

     

    TFF-Indonesia has participated with a number of concession in conducting in-house operational trials intended to give a quick evaluation of the productivity benefits of adopting RIL. Results of such studies will be published in the "RIL & Certification" newsletter from time to time. For the results of a recent study refer to the article "Investigating the Benefits of an RIL System" in the April 2004 issue of the "RIL & Certification Newsletter".

     

  • Training in RIL involves both classroom and field exercisesDemand and Support for RIL Training Remains Strong

    Despite the global economic downturn, demand for TFF training is on the rise and funding support is meeting the chellenge...

  • Over the past two years, a technical committee within the TFF board of directors and in close collaboration with TFF regional program directors, has developed a generic RIL Standard and a protocol for administering the TFF Forest-Market Linking Program.

     

    This standard has been designed to serve as a quality reference for timber harvesting procedures and techniques in natural tropical forests. The document also sets out the administrative details for participation in TFF's forest-market linking program and for the use of the market oriented logos awarded to qualifyaing producers.

  • The Concept

     

    The concept of the Tropical Forest Foundation (TFF) was formulated in 1990 as a result of a Smithsonian Institution workshop that brought together leaders of industry, science, and conservation, to address the growing concern for the protection of tropical forests. Soon after, the TFF was established by the International Wood Products Association (IWPA), to foster dialogue and alliances between industry groups, to improve tropical forest management, and to enhance the economic value of tropical forests.

     

    Shortly after its inception, TFF initiated a research and training program in Brazil under the Brazilian subsidiary, Fundacao Floresta Tropical (FFT). This program now reaches into the entire Amazon Region with training extension services complimenting a centralized and structured training program based at a forest training site in Cauaxi, Para State Since 1996, more than 2,000 individuals from logging companies, universities, and government agencies have received TFF RIL training in Brazil alone.

     

    In 2000, TFF expanded its activities by starting a Southeast Asia program based in Indonesia. In 2002, another regional program in RIL training was initiated in Guyana. A further expansion occurred in early 2004 with the initiation of a Regional training program based in Gabon, West Africa.

  • RIL Criteria and Indicators

    Generic definition of RIL adopted by TFF board of directors. Indonesia criteria and indicators now being applied.

  • List of Participating Forest Management Units (FMU)

    No. Company Name Type Area (Ha) Location
    1.   Akhates Plywood  Forest Concession  94.380     Central Kalimantan
    2.   Amindo Wana Persada  Forest Concession  43.680     East Kalimantan
     3.   Anugerah Pratama Inspirasi  Forest Concession  43.525     Bengkulu, Sumatera
    4.   Balikpapan Forest Industri  Forest Concession  140.883     East Kalimantan
    5.   Belayan River Timber  Forest Concession 97.500     East Kalimantan
    6.   Bina Balantak Utama  Forest Concession 325.000     Papua
    7.   Carus Indonesia  Forest Concession 72.170     Central Kalimantan
    8.   Civika Wana Lestari  Forest Concession 53.000     East Kalimantan
    9.   Dwimajaya Utama  Forest Concession 127.300     Central Kalimantan
    10.   Erna Djuliawati  Forest Concession 184.206     Central Kalimantan
    11.   Gema Hutani Lestari  Forest Concession 148.450     Buru island, Moluku
    12.   Graha Sentosa Permai  Forest Concession 44.970     Central Kalimantan
    13.   Hanurata III  Forest Concession 209.670     West Papua
    14.   Hutan Domas Raya  Forest Concession 110.489     Central Kalimantan
    15.   Hutan Mulya  Forest Concession 52.100     Central Kalimantan
    16.   Indexim Utama  Forest Concession 52.480     Central Kalimantan
    17.   Inhutani II - Unit Malinau  Forest Concession 29.040     North Kalimantan
    18.   Inhutani II - Unit Sei Tubu  Forest Concession 99.100     North Kalimantan
    19.   Inhutani II - Unit Semamu  Forest Concession 71.375     North Kalimantan
    20.   Kayu Tribuana Rama  Forest Concession 98.765     Central Kalimantan
    21.   Kayu Waja  Forest Concession 38.260     Central Kalimantan
    22.   Kemakmuran Berka Timber  Forest Concession 72.000     East Kalimantan
    23.   Mamberamo Alas Mandiri - Not Active  Forest Concession 691.700     Papua
    24.   Manokwari Mandiri Lestari  Forest Concession 83.240     Papua
    25.   Multi Wahana Wijaya  Forest Concession 134.708     West Papua 
    26.   Narkata Rimba Timber  Forest Concession 68.000     East Kalimantan
    27.   Pangkar Begili  Forest Concession 30.145     West Kalimantan
    28.   Ratah Timber  Forest Concession 97.690     East Kalimantan
    29.   Roda Mas Timber Kalimantan  Forest Concession 99.520     East Kalimantan
    30.   Sarana Trirasa Bhakti  Forest Concession 41.600     West Kalimantan
    31.   Sarang Sapta Putra  Forest Concession 49.500     Central Kalimantan
    32.   Sari Bumi Kusuma  Forest Concession 147.600     Central Kalimantan
    33.   Sari Bumi Kusuma - Kalbar  Forest Concession 72.200     West Kalimantan
    34.   Sari Bumi Kusuma - Delang  Forest Concession 60.700     West Kalimantan
    35.   Sarmiento Parakantja Timber  Forest Concession 216.580     Central Kalimantan
    36.   Sikatan Wana Raya  Forest Concession  48.557     Central Kalimantan
    37.   Sindo Lumber  Forest Concession 76.925     Central Kalimantan
    38.   SIPEF Biodiversity Indonesia  Restoration Ecosystem 12.800     Bengkulu, Sumatera
    39.   Suka Jaya Makmur  Forest Concession 171.340     West Kalimantan
    40.   Sumalindo Lestari Jaya II  Forest Concession 276.600     East Kalimantan
    41.   Sumalindo Lestari Jaya V  Forest Concession 41.000     East Kalimantan
    42.   Telaga Bakti Persada  Forest Concession 63.405     North Moluku
    43.   Timberdana  Forest Concession 76.340     East Kalimantan
    44.   Tingang Karya Mandiri  Forest Concession 44.925     Central Kalimantan
    45.   Yotefa Sarana Timber  Forest Concession 182.000     Papua
    46.   Wanasokan Hasilindo  Forest Concession 49.000     West Kalimantan
    47.   Wapoga Mutiara Timber  Forest Concession 196.900     Papua
             
    T O T A L 5.241.318    
  • List of participating forest industries :

    No. Company Name Product Location

    1. 

      PT. Agung Kharisma Jaya Abadi  decking, fences, trellis, garden screen   Surabaya, East Java
     2.    PT. Anugrah Jaya Indonesia  furniture   Semarang, Central Java
     3.    PT. Aquiva Gallery  furniture   Yogyakarta, Central Java
     4.    PT. Aura Living  furniture   Jepara, Central Java
     5.    CV. Cahaya Sukses Abadi  furniture   Semarang, Central Java
     6.    CV. CM3G  furniture   Semarang, Central Java
     7.    PT. Devonshire Tunggalindo  furniture    Semarang, Central Java 
    8.    PT. Erna Djuliawati Industry  plywood, veneers, flooring, etc.   Kayu Tunu Village, Sanggau, West Kalimantan
     9.    PT. Harjohn Timber  plywood, polyester panels, block boards
      Pontianak, West Kalimantan
    10.    PT. Henrison Iriana Arar Sorong     Papua
    11.    PT. Karya Guna Ekatama     East Java
    12.    PT. Katingan Timber Celebes     South Sulawesi
    13.    PT. Kayu Lapis Indonesia  plywood, flooring, garden furniture   Kendal, Central Java, Central Kalimantan, Papua
    14.    PT. Matahari Terbit Elok  furniture   Central Java
     15.    CV. Natural  wood carpet   Palembang, South Sumatera
    16.    PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma Industry  plywood, moulding, sawn timber   Pontianak, West Kalimantan
     17.    UD. Sinar Agung Putra  furniture   Jepara, Central Java
     18.    PT. Sky Line  furniture   Surabaya, East Java
    19.    PT. Suka Jaya Makmur  Ketapang, Industry   Ketapang, West Kalimantan
    20.    UD. Surya Abadi Furniture  furniture    Solo, Central Java
    21.    PT. Surya Mahkota Timber     Banten
    22.    PT. Surya Satrya Timur Corp.     South Kalimantan
     23.    PT. Talaindo Interior  furniture   Yogyakarta
    24.    PT. Tamara Danielle Interior’s  furniture   Jepara, Central Java
    25.    PT. Tanjung Kreasi Parquet Industries     Central Java
     26.    UD. Tarita Furniture  furniture   Bali
    27.    PT. Tirta Mahakam Resources      East Kalimantan
    28.    PT. Tirta Mahakam     East Java
     29.    UD. Tri Utami  crafts   Bali 
     30.    PT. Tunas Jaya  furniture   Solo, Central Java

     

    PT. Tamara Danielle Interior’s

  • RIL Verified Participants

    RIL verified concession areas under the TFF program, are now approaching one million hectares and growing...

  • Group photo of participants in the first RIL training to be held in PNG

    Papua New Guinea’s main policy instrument for regulating management practices in the natural forest concession industry is the ‘Logging Code of Practice’.

     

  • R I L  -  Indonesia

  • The concept of linking a forest management unit to specific market access was first pioneered by TFF as a pilot project in 2003.

    The primary motivation to creating this pilot project was to test the feasibility of using market access as a lever to stimulate adoption of RIL.

    The success of this pilot project has resulted in a major shift in the TFF - Indonesia program toward market oriented engagement with the forest industry. The forest market linking concept is now central to many of TFF's activities.

    Details of this program are posted under Forest Market Linking Program.

  • REDUCED IMPACT LOGGING (RIL), SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT AND CERTIFICATION

    Reduced Impact Logging and Sustainable Forest Management

    The connection between the implementation of Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) strategies and the achievement of SFM is quite straightforward. It starts with the recognition that under most tropical forest jurisdictions, the regulatory and/or enforcement capabilities have been inadequate in ensuring that forests are left in a good enough condition to ensure the maintenance of all forest values.

    In Indonesia, natural forests are managed under a 35 year cutting cycle. Harvesting is regulated using a minimum diameter limit of 50 centimeters (60 centimeters for steeper areas).  

    It is assumed that each hectare will have at least 25 trees between the diameters of 20 – 49 centimeters prior to felling and it is further assumed that sufficient numbers of these trees will be retained to form the next cutting cycle of equal or greater volume. Assumptions on growth rate are reasonable and expressed in terms of an anticipated annual increment of one cubic meter per hectare per year as well as an anticipated increment of one centimeter to the diameters of trees in the 20-49 centimeter range.

    Most researchers agree that these are reasonable and safe assumptions, which can guarantee sustainable production of equal or better volumes during subsequent cutting cycles. However, there is one additional assumption and that is that the forest is left in a good enough condition to ensure an equal harvest by the time of the next cutting cycle.

    In the regulatory framework of the Indonesian silvicultural system, there is no clear and enforceable criteria which adequately defines the level of “acceptable” impact. It could well be argued that regulations of this nature are almost impossible to formulate and even more difficult to enforce.

    The failure of the Indonesian silvicultural system, indeed, the failure of the Saba or Sarawak systems to ensure that the forests are left in a condition where they can fully recover within the target rotation cycle, lies not in the lack of regulations, but rather in the failure to enforce existing regulations.

    This is where RIL enters the picture. As the realization that existing forest administration systems have failed to deliver on the promise of physical sustainability of the productive functions of the forest, foresters began to explore the reasons why, and to define the corrective actions needed to get back on the “sustainability” track, hence, the development of a concept which we now refer to as “Reduced Impact Logging”.

    The contribution of RIL to the achievement of sustainable forest management is primarily focused on the achievement of sustainability of the productive functions of the forest. Most commonly this is seen as the maintenance of age class distributions, natural species mix, and minimization of impact on a number of physical attributes of the forest.

    However, RIL’s contribution goes well beyond the achievement of the purely productive commercial functions of the forest. Environmental standards are essential for good planning. Such standards must address the maintenance of hydrological function and water quality by such measures as restricting machine movements in riparian zones and establishing stream buffer zones. This implicitly deals with the issue of erosion.

    Steep slopes are another contentious issue and need to be addressed in an RIL system. Proper planning is the cornerstone of an RIL system. Environmental issues as well as productivity concerns are addressed at the planning stage and then incorporated into all aspects of the production activities.

    The result is forest planning and operational activities, which take into account environmental concerns while at the same time seeking to improve the efficiency of the productive functions.

    While a properly implemented RIL system can ensure that the silvicultural and production objectives of sustainable forest management are met, RIL does not guarantee sustainable forest management as defined under a forest certification system. In this context, sustainable forest management takes on a much broader meaning that embraces concepts such as social equity, maintenance of biodiversity, etc. As an introduction to the topic of RIL and certification, it could be stated that certification is not possible without the adoption of RIL but RIL adoption alone does not guarantee the achievement of certification.

    Reduced Impact Logging and Forest Certification

    The FSC principles and criteria set out a basic framework against which any forest management unit can be evaluated. The nine FSC principles and the accompanying 47 criteria pertaining to natural forest management, are a generic guide and, as such, can present interpretation problems for forest managers who’s perceptions are more attuned to the practicalities of day-to-day operations. Even though Regional clarifications and guidelines for these criteria have in many cases, been developed by accredited certifiers, the challenge for the forest manager remains one of understanding what changes need to be made in planning and operational activities to satisfy the FSC criteria.

    Reduced impact logging is not specifically mentioned in the FSC guidelines or criteria although it is acknowledged as a necessity for forest certification by certifiers who operate in the polycyclical management regimes commonly applied to forest harvesting in the humid tropics.

    The role of RIL in achieving compliance with the FSC principles and criteria is generally poorly understood and warrants clarification. How much and where an RIL activity potentially contributes to FSC certification, depends to a certain extent on what is included in the activity definition of RIL.

    There are a number of areas where RIL interfaces with the FSC principles and criteria. These interactions are widely acknowledged by FSC and LEI certifiers working within the Indonesian context and are frequently referred to in certification scopings and assessments of forest management units.  


    RIL has very strong relevance for this principle. This applicability is probably best detailed in the context of the individual criteria.

    Criteria 5.1 Forest management should strive toward economic viability, while taking into account the full environmental, social, and operational costs of production, and, ensuring the investments necessary to maintain the ecological productivity of the forest.

    There is a significant contribution which RIL can make to this criterion. Many of the RIL studies and demonstrations carried out to date, show significant financial and economic benefits can be expected through improvements in production efficiencies and better recovery of felled trees by applying systematic planning and improved supervision as required under a RIL system.

    Criteria 5.3 Forest management should minimize waste associated with harvesting and on-site processing operations and avoid damage to other forest resources.

    RIL emphasizes the development of falling and bucking guidelines and the adoption of a comprehensive system of standard operating procedures (SOPs). This is in recognition that utilization of felled trees under a conventional, relatively unplanned operation, results in very high inefficiencies in bucking utilization and in a high incidence of felled trees “forgotten” during the skidding operation.

    Very few studies have actually looked at felling and bucking utilization, however, the few which have been carried out, have found common ground in the quantification of a potential for 20-30% improvements in high-quality wood recovery from the felled trees achievable through improvements in bucking standards and supervision. A thorough discussion of issues concerning the minimization of high quality logging waste has been presented in a paper titled, “Reduced Impact Logging: A Cost Effective Way to Reduce Utilization Waste in the Natural Forest Management Unit”.

    The role of RIL in reducing damage to soils, residual stems, regeneration, and forest streams, is much better studied and documented. It would be safe to say that no researcher has failed to find a significant correlation between the adoption of a RIL system and major reduction in impacts for all or most of the common parameters used to evaluate forest harvesting impact. A significant body of research related to the benefits of RIL has now been published as the proceedings of an “International Conference on the Application of RIL to Advance Sustainable Forest Management, held in Kuching, Sarawak, from 26th February to 1 March, 2001.

    Criteria 5.5 Forest management operators shall recognize, maintain, and, where appropriate, enhance the value of forest services and resources such as watersheds and fisheries.

    One of the biggest environmental (and social impacts) of harvesting in an uncontrolled manner, is the impact on the forest hydrology. Heavy sedimentation of streams and rivers are common sights throughout many of the logging concessions in Indonesia and Malaysia. Such sedimentation, apart from being a clear indicator of productive soil loss, also has a profound effect on stream ecology resulting in sharp declines in fish populations and degradation of domestic water supplies.

    Concession managers are becoming increasing aware of this issue as local communities in or downstream from their concessions, are becoming increasing vocal in their objection to industrial harvesting upstream of their water supply and on the detrimental effect this activity is having on the availability of fish.

    Through the use of detailed and appropriately scaled maps and the incorporation of guidelines related to the treatment of riparian zones, steep slopes, and by deactivating skid trails, a comprehensive RIL strategy can result in logging which significantly reduces or eliminates the degradation of forest streams.

     
     

    As with the previous Principle, RIL has very strong applicability for issues concerned with Environmental Impact.

    Criteria 6.1 Assessment of environmental impacts shall be completed – appropriate to the scale, intensity of forest management and the uniqueness of the affected resources – and adequately integrated into management systems. Assessments shall include landscape level considerations as well as the impacts of on-site processing facilities. Environmental impacts shall be assessed prior to commencement of site-disturbing operations.

    Although much of the emphasis of this criteria is focused on the landscape, it also has clear applicability to activities such as road construction and logging.

    One of the requirements under an RIL system is the need for monitoring and evaluation. This requirement is widely acknowledged as being necessary to ensure successful implementation of RIL by providing Management with immediate feed-back and by providing a process for recommending mitigating measures. There is no one, simple methodology that could be applied to the adoption of a monitoring and evaluation function. What is clear, however, is that the methodology should be appropriate to the operation in terms of evaluating the key indicators of impact and in providing feed-back in a way that can be easily interpreted and acted on.

    The monitoring and evaluation function should result in a simple block report with an attached map. This information could form part of the block dossier, which would be available for audit review such as that undertaken by a certification assessment. Information on logging history, including a monitoring and evaluation block report, could become a very powerful indicator that the forest manager is aware of and is effectively addressing issues related to logging impact and sustainable forest management.

    Criteria 6.2 Safeguards shall exist which protect rare, threatened and endangered species and their habitats (eg. Nesting and feeding areas). Conservation zones and protection areas shall be established, appropriate to the scale and intensity of forest management and the uniqueness of the affected resources.

    This criteria is often interpreted in the context of broad-based safeguards, but it is easy to incorporate many of these safeguards into a comprehensive RIL system. The 100% inventory under an RIL system, should capture more information than just tree data. With very little additional effort, tees of special value to cavity dwellers or fruit producing trees can be identified, recorded, and mapped. Planning and operational guidelines which are necessary under an RIL system, will subsequently give guidance to the management activities as they pertain to the preservation of such ecological values. The operational inventory can also be used as a baseline information gathering tool for information related to biodiversity issues.

    Criteria 6.3 Ecological functions and values shall be maintained intact, enhanced, or restored, including: (a) forest regeneration and succession, (b) Genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity, (c) Natural cycles that affect the productivity of the forest ecosystem

    This criteria relates most strongly to the need to minimize site disturbance and damage to forest regeneration, a key issue in an RIL system. This criteria is, therefore, influenced by the adoption of RIL practices which seek to minimize such disturbances through proper planning and operational control. As in previous discussions, research and demonstration have clearly demonstrated the improvements that an RIL system can bring to the reduction of site disturbance. Such disturbance is frequently quantified by the number of square meters of skid trail per hectare which is a parameter easy to measure and evaluate.

    Criteria 6.5 Written guidelines shall be prepared and implemented to: control erosion; minimize forest damage during harvesting, road construction, and all other mechanical disturbances; and , protect water resources.

    This relates directly to another fundamental aspect of RIL, namely the need for detailed guidelines, often referred to as a set of Standard Operating Procedures(SOP) in which scope and objectives of the various activities are clearly stated and their implementation instructions are described in a “how-to-do” format. TFF is in the process of developing such a SOP system for RIL and expects to publish the results in the form of a booklet during the next year.

    Criteria # 7.1 The management plan and supporting documents shall provide: a) . . . . h) Maps describing the forest resource base including protected areas, planned management activities and land ownership. i) . . . .

    In RIL, one activity stands out as having particular relevance to this principle and that is the creation and use of maps.

    Mapping of tree positions is the only mapping requirement under the Indonesian TPTI - Tebang Pilih Tanaman Indonesia (Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting Silvicultural System) silvicultural and administrative system. However, in the undulating to hummocky terrain which is typical of much of Sumatra and Kalimantan, topography usually plays a more important role in logging planning than tree positions. RIL prescriptions, therefore, call for the creation of contour maps which, when combined with tree positions and planimetric detail, provide an extremely powerful planning tool which permits optimization of road and skid trail planning and, the planning for minimal stream crossings, avoiding steep slopes and, generally integrating operational and environmental constraints into the planning process.

    The same maps can also be used by the production personnel to guide and control harvesting activities. Finally, these maps can also be the basis for post-harvesting evaluation and can be used to create a permanent record of management activities on a block by block basis.

     
     

    The relevance of RIL to Principle 8, relates primarily to the emphasis which RIL places on accurate tree identification and mapping. This is the first step in a chain-of-custody system without which, the benefits of a certified management unit cannot be transferred to the final product and the market place.

    Various tree marking systems have been developed but the most common one is probably the 3-part, ‘tear-off’, plastic tag which provides a means for the original tree number from the forest inventory, to be kept with the tree during skidding while at the same time retaining the identification of the tree stump.

    Mapping of tree positions is a time-consuming activity probably only possible in a low labor cost environment such as those found in Indonesia. Tree positions are recorded on tally sheets during systematic surveys of the forest and either recorded graphically on a note sheet or, recorded in relationship to a sampling grid using an “x” and “y” coordinate system. Processing options vary from manual plotting to a sophisticated integration of various computer software systems.

    Similarly, RIL places emphasis on reliable tracking systems and records and is therefore, in full support of chain-of-custody certification.

    These represent the main connections between and RIL system and forest certification, although numerous other connections can be made within the overall Principles and Criteria which make up a forest certification system.

  • RIL Criteria and Indicators

    Generic definition of RIL adopted by TFF board of directors. Indonesia criteria and indicators now being applied.

  • The concept of linking a forest management unit to specific market access was first pioneered by TFF as a pilot project in 2003.

    The primary motivation to creating this pilot project was to test the feasibility of using market access as a lever to stimulate adoption of RIL.

    The success of this pilot project has resulted in a major shift in the TFF - Indonesia program toward market oriented engagement with the forest industry. The forest market linking concept is now central to many of TFF's activities.

    Details of this program are posted under Forest Market Linking Program.

  • REDUCED IMPACT LOGGING (RIL), SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT AND CERTIFICATION

    Reduced Impact Logging and Sustainable Forest Management

    The connection between the implementation of Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) strategies and the achievement of SFM is quite straightforward. It starts with the recognition that under most tropical forest jurisdictions, the regulatory and/or enforcement capabilities have been inadequate in ensuring that forests are left in a good enough condition to ensure the maintenance of all forest values.

    In Indonesia, natural forests are managed under a 35 year cutting cycle. Harvesting is regulated using a minimum diameter limit of 50 centimeters (60 centimeters for steeper areas).  

    It is assumed that each hectare will have at least 25 trees between the diameters of 20 – 49 centimeters prior to felling and it is further assumed that sufficient numbers of these trees will be retained to form the next cutting cycle of equal or greater volume. Assumptions on growth rate are reasonable and expressed in terms of an anticipated annual increment of one cubic meter per hectare per year as well as an anticipated increment of one centimeter to the diameters of trees in the 20-49 centimeter range.

    Most researchers agree that these are reasonable and safe assumptions, which can guarantee sustainable production of equal or better volumes during subsequent cutting cycles. However, there is one additional assumption and that is that the forest is left in a good enough condition to ensure an equal harvest by the time of the next cutting cycle.

    In the regulatory framework of the Indonesian silvicultural system, there is no clear and enforceable criteria which adequately defines the level of “acceptable” impact. It could well be argued that regulations of this nature are almost impossible to formulate and even more difficult to enforce.

    The failure of the Indonesian silvicultural system, indeed, the failure of the Saba or Sarawak systems to ensure that the forests are left in a condition where they can fully recover within the target rotation cycle, lies not in the lack of regulations, but rather in the failure to enforce existing regulations.

    This is where RIL enters the picture. As the realization that existing forest administration systems have failed to deliver on the promise of physical sustainability of the productive functions of the forest, foresters began to explore the reasons why, and to define the corrective actions needed to get back on the “sustainability” track, hence, the development of a concept which we now refer to as “Reduced Impact Logging”.

    The contribution of RIL to the achievement of sustainable forest management is primarily focused on the achievement of sustainability of the productive functions of the forest. Most commonly this is seen as the maintenance of age class distributions, natural species mix, and minimization of impact on a number of physical attributes of the forest.

    However, RIL’s contribution goes well beyond the achievement of the purely productive commercial functions of the forest. Environmental standards are essential for good planning. Such standards must address the maintenance of hydrological function and water quality by such measures as restricting machine movements in riparian zones and establishing stream buffer zones. This implicitly deals with the issue of erosion.

    Steep slopes are another contentious issue and need to be addressed in an RIL system. Proper planning is the cornerstone of an RIL system. Environmental issues as well as productivity concerns are addressed at the planning stage and then incorporated into all aspects of the production activities.

    The result is forest planning and operational activities, which take into account environmental concerns while at the same time seeking to improve the efficiency of the productive functions.

    While a properly implemented RIL system can ensure that the silvicultural and production objectives of sustainable forest management are met, RIL does not guarantee sustainable forest management as defined under a forest certification system. In this context, sustainable forest management takes on a much broader meaning that embraces concepts such as social equity, maintenance of biodiversity, etc. As an introduction to the topic of RIL and certification, it could be stated that certification is not possible without the adoption of RIL but RIL adoption alone does not guarantee the achievement of certification.

    Reduced Impact Logging and Forest Certification

    The FSC principles and criteria set out a basic framework against which any forest management unit can be evaluated. The nine FSC principles and the accompanying 47 criteria pertaining to natural forest management, are a generic guide and, as such, can present interpretation problems for forest managers who’s perceptions are more attuned to the practicalities of day-to-day operations. Even though Regional clarifications and guidelines for these criteria have in many cases, been developed by accredited certifiers, the challenge for the forest manager remains one of understanding what changes need to be made in planning and operational activities to satisfy the FSC criteria.

    Reduced impact logging is not specifically mentioned in the FSC guidelines or criteria although it is acknowledged as a necessity for forest certification by certifiers who operate in the polycyclical management regimes commonly applied to forest harvesting in the humid tropics.

    The role of RIL in achieving compliance with the FSC principles and criteria is generally poorly understood and warrants clarification. How much and where an RIL activity potentially contributes to FSC certification, depends to a certain extent on what is included in the activity definition of RIL.

    There are a number of areas where RIL interfaces with the FSC principles and criteria. These interactions are widely acknowledged by FSC and LEI certifiers working within the Indonesian context and are frequently referred to in certification scopings and assessments of forest management units.  


    RIL has very strong relevance for this principle. This applicability is probably best detailed in the context of the individual criteria.

    Criteria 5.1 Forest management should strive toward economic viability, while taking into account the full environmental, social, and operational costs of production, and, ensuring the investments necessary to maintain the ecological productivity of the forest.

    There is a significant contribution which RIL can make to this criterion. Many of the RIL studies and demonstrations carried out to date, show significant financial and economic benefits can be expected through improvements in production efficiencies and better recovery of felled trees by applying systematic planning and improved supervision as required under a RIL system.

    Criteria 5.3 Forest management should minimize waste associated with harvesting and on-site processing operations and avoid damage to other forest resources.

    RIL emphasizes the development of falling and bucking guidelines and the adoption of a comprehensive system of standard operating procedures (SOPs). This is in recognition that utilization of felled trees under a conventional, relatively unplanned operation, results in very high inefficiencies in bucking utilization and in a high incidence of felled trees “forgotten” during the skidding operation.

    Very few studies have actually looked at felling and bucking utilization, however, the few which have been carried out, have found common ground in the quantification of a potential for 20-30% improvements in high-quality wood recovery from the felled trees achievable through improvements in bucking standards and supervision. A thorough discussion of issues concerning the minimization of high quality logging waste has been presented in a paper titled, “Reduced Impact Logging: A Cost Effective Way to Reduce Utilization Waste in the Natural Forest Management Unit”.

    The role of RIL in reducing damage to soils, residual stems, regeneration, and forest streams, is much better studied and documented. It would be safe to say that no researcher has failed to find a significant correlation between the adoption of a RIL system and major reduction in impacts for all or most of the common parameters used to evaluate forest harvesting impact. A significant body of research related to the benefits of RIL has now been published as the proceedings of an “International Conference on the Application of RIL to Advance Sustainable Forest Management, held in Kuching, Sarawak, from 26th February to 1 March, 2001.

    Criteria 5.5 Forest management operators shall recognize, maintain, and, where appropriate, enhance the value of forest services and resources such as watersheds and fisheries.

    One of the biggest environmental (and social impacts) of harvesting in an uncontrolled manner, is the impact on the forest hydrology. Heavy sedimentation of streams and rivers are common sights throughout many of the logging concessions in Indonesia and Malaysia. Such sedimentation, apart from being a clear indicator of productive soil loss, also has a profound effect on stream ecology resulting in sharp declines in fish populations and degradation of domestic water supplies.

    Concession managers are becoming increasing aware of this issue as local communities in or downstream from their concessions, are becoming increasing vocal in their objection to industrial harvesting upstream of their water supply and on the detrimental effect this activity is having on the availability of fish.

    Through the use of detailed and appropriately scaled maps and the incorporation of guidelines related to the treatment of riparian zones, steep slopes, and by deactivating skid trails, a comprehensive RIL strategy can result in logging which significantly reduces or eliminates the degradation of forest streams.

     
     

    As with the previous Principle, RIL has very strong applicability for issues concerned with Environmental Impact.

    Criteria 6.1 Assessment of environmental impacts shall be completed – appropriate to the scale, intensity of forest management and the uniqueness of the affected resources – and adequately integrated into management systems. Assessments shall include landscape level considerations as well as the impacts of on-site processing facilities. Environmental impacts shall be assessed prior to commencement of site-disturbing operations.

    Although much of the emphasis of this criteria is focused on the landscape, it also has clear applicability to activities such as road construction and logging.

    One of the requirements under an RIL system is the need for monitoring and evaluation. This requirement is widely acknowledged as being necessary to ensure successful implementation of RIL by providing Management with immediate feed-back and by providing a process for recommending mitigating measures. There is no one, simple methodology that could be applied to the adoption of a monitoring and evaluation function. What is clear, however, is that the methodology should be appropriate to the operation in terms of evaluating the key indicators of impact and in providing feed-back in a way that can be easily interpreted and acted on.

    The monitoring and evaluation function should result in a simple block report with an attached map. This information could form part of the block dossier, which would be available for audit review such as that undertaken by a certification assessment. Information on logging history, including a monitoring and evaluation block report, could become a very powerful indicator that the forest manager is aware of and is effectively addressing issues related to logging impact and sustainable forest management.

    Criteria 6.2 Safeguards shall exist which protect rare, threatened and endangered species and their habitats (eg. Nesting and feeding areas). Conservation zones and protection areas shall be established, appropriate to the scale and intensity of forest management and the uniqueness of the affected resources.

    This criteria is often interpreted in the context of broad-based safeguards, but it is easy to incorporate many of these safeguards into a comprehensive RIL system. The 100% inventory under an RIL system, should capture more information than just tree data. With very little additional effort, tees of special value to cavity dwellers or fruit producing trees can be identified, recorded, and mapped. Planning and operational guidelines which are necessary under an RIL system, will subsequently give guidance to the management activities as they pertain to the preservation of such ecological values. The operational inventory can also be used as a baseline information gathering tool for information related to biodiversity issues.

    Criteria 6.3 Ecological functions and values shall be maintained intact, enhanced, or restored, including: (a) forest regeneration and succession, (b) Genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity, (c) Natural cycles that affect the productivity of the forest ecosystem

    This criteria relates most strongly to the need to minimize site disturbance and damage to forest regeneration, a key issue in an RIL system. This criteria is, therefore, influenced by the adoption of RIL practices which seek to minimize such disturbances through proper planning and operational control. As in previous discussions, research and demonstration have clearly demonstrated the improvements that an RIL system can bring to the reduction of site disturbance. Such disturbance is frequently quantified by the number of square meters of skid trail per hectare which is a parameter easy to measure and evaluate.

    Criteria 6.5 Written guidelines shall be prepared and implemented to: control erosion; minimize forest damage during harvesting, road construction, and all other mechanical disturbances; and , protect water resources.

    This relates directly to another fundamental aspect of RIL, namely the need for detailed guidelines, often referred to as a set of Standard Operating Procedures(SOP) in which scope and objectives of the various activities are clearly stated and their implementation instructions are described in a “how-to-do” format. TFF is in the process of developing such a SOP system for RIL and expects to publish the results in the form of a booklet during the next year.

    Criteria # 7.1 The management plan and supporting documents shall provide: a) . . . . h) Maps describing the forest resource base including protected areas, planned management activities and land ownership. i) . . . .

    In RIL, one activity stands out as having particular relevance to this principle and that is the creation and use of maps.

    Mapping of tree positions is the only mapping requirement under the Indonesian TPTI - Tebang Pilih Tanaman Indonesia (Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting Silvicultural System) silvicultural and administrative system. However, in the undulating to hummocky terrain which is typical of much of Sumatra and Kalimantan, topography usually plays a more important role in logging planning than tree positions. RIL prescriptions, therefore, call for the creation of contour maps which, when combined with tree positions and planimetric detail, provide an extremely powerful planning tool which permits optimization of road and skid trail planning and, the planning for minimal stream crossings, avoiding steep slopes and, generally integrating operational and environmental constraints into the planning process.

    The same maps can also be used by the production personnel to guide and control harvesting activities. Finally, these maps can also be the basis for post-harvesting evaluation and can be used to create a permanent record of management activities on a block by block basis.

     
     

    The relevance of RIL to Principle 8, relates primarily to the emphasis which RIL places on accurate tree identification and mapping. This is the first step in a chain-of-custody system without which, the benefits of a certified management unit cannot be transferred to the final product and the market place.

    Various tree marking systems have been developed but the most common one is probably the 3-part, ‘tear-off’, plastic tag which provides a means for the original tree number from the forest inventory, to be kept with the tree during skidding while at the same time retaining the identification of the tree stump.

    Mapping of tree positions is a time-consuming activity probably only possible in a low labor cost environment such as those found in Indonesia. Tree positions are recorded on tally sheets during systematic surveys of the forest and either recorded graphically on a note sheet or, recorded in relationship to a sampling grid using an “x” and “y” coordinate system. Processing options vary from manual plotting to a sophisticated integration of various computer software systems.

    Similarly, RIL places emphasis on reliable tracking systems and records and is therefore, in full support of chain-of-custody certification.

    These represent the main connections between and RIL system and forest certification, although numerous other connections can be made within the overall Principles and Criteria which make up a forest certification system.

  • RIL Manual - indonesia

  • RIL Manuals - english

  • RIL Verified Participants

    RIL verified concession areas under the TFF program, are now approaching one million hectares and growing...